Bø municipality is part of the Vesterålen region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Straume. Other villages in the municipality include Bø, Eidet, Hovden, Nykvåg, and Utskor. The Litløy Lighthouse is located on the tiny island of Litløya off the coast of Bø.
The village of Bø is located on the southern coast of the municipality. It is made up of several populated areas such as Stein and Vinje. Bø Church is located in the eastern part of this village. The 1.41-square-kilometre (350-acre) village of Bø has a population (2011) of 726, giving the village a population density of 515 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,330 /sq mi)
The municipality of Bø was established on 1 January 1838.
The municipality (originally the parish) is named after the old Bø farm (Old Norse: Bœr), since the first church (Bø Church) was built there. The name is identical with the word bœr which means "farm" and it is a cognate with the Dutch language word "boer" which means "farmer".
The municipality has sustained a steady decline in population since the 1950s when 6,122 people lived in Bø. The 2001 census showed that the population had declined to 3,156, while the fourth quarter population estimate for 2007 showed the population at 2866. The bureau of statistics projects a continued population decline.
The municipality of Bø lies on the island of Langøya and many small surrounding islets including Litløya. There is one road that connects Bø to the rest of Norway via the 1,612-metre (5,289 ft) long Ryggedal Tunnel, connecting Bø to Øksnes and Sortland.